Abolitionist Movement, reform movement during the 18th and 19th
centuries. Often called the antislavery movement, it sought to end the
enslavement of Africans and people of African descent in Europe, the
Americas, and Africa itself (see Slavery in Africa). It also aimed to end the
Atlantic slave trade carried out in the Atlantic Ocean between Africa, Europe,
and the Americas.
The historical roots of abolitionism lay in black resistance to slavery. Such
resistance began during the 15th century as Africans enslaved by Europeans
often sought to kill their captors or themselves. By the late 1700s Christian
morality, new ideas about liberty and human rights that came about as a
result of the American and French revolutions, and economic changes led to
an effort among blacks and whites to end human bondage.
Those who employed slave labor in the Americas resisted abolitionist efforts.
First, slaveholders believed that their economic prosperity demanded the
continuation of slavery. In order to work the large plantations in the
Americas, huge amounts of labor were required. African slaves were cheaper
and more readily available than white indentured laborers from Europe, and
because they already had some immunity to European diseases, Africans
were less likely to die from those diseases than were Native Americans.
Second, employers of slave labor feared for their own safety if the slaves
were freed. Due to the large number of slaves brought to the Americas,
several regions had slave majorities. Slave owners worried that if slaves were
suddenly freed, they might take over or exact revenge on their former
masters. Although abolitionism existed in Europe and in the American
colonies of several European nations, the struggle between antislavery and
proslavery forces was most protracted, bitter, and bloody in the United
As a result of the abolitionist movement, the institution of slavery ceased to
exist in Europe and the Americas by 1888, although it was not completely
legally abolished in Africa until the first quarter of the 20th century. While the
abolitionist movement's greatest achievement was certainly the liberation of
millions of black people from servitude, it also reflected the triumph of
modern ideas of freedom and human rights over older social forms based on
privileged elites and social stratification.
The Atlantic slave trade began in Africa in the mid-1400s and lasted into the
19th century. Initially, Portuguese traders purchased small numbers of
slaves from kingdoms on the western coast of Africa and transported them
for sale in Portugal and Spain. The Atlantic slave trade did not become a
huge enterprise until after European nations began colonizing the Americas
during the 1500s. During the 1600s the Dutch pushed the Portuguese out of
the trade and then contested the British and French for control of it. By 1713
Britain had emerged as the dominant slave-trading nation. In all, the trade
brought more than 10 million Africans to America, and at least another 1
million Africans died in passage.
The brutality of the Atlantic slave trade and of slavery itself played an
important role in the origins of the abolitionist movement. Those subjected
to the trade suffered horribly: They were chained, branded, crowded onto
disease-ridden slave ships, and abused by ship's crews. Many Africans died
on the ships well before they arrived in the Americas. Once in the colonies,
slaves were deprived of their human rights, made to endure dreadful
conditions, and forced to perform backbreaking labor. Despite the horrors of
the slave trade and slavery, white opposition to the institution developed
slowly. The economies of many of the colonies were based on huge
plantations that required large labor forces in order to be profitable. Also,
views of society at the time were very hierarchical, and many people simply
accepted the fact that classes of people they considered lower than
themselves should be enslaved. In addition, the widespread perception that
blacks were culturally, morally, and intellectually inferior to whites contributed
to the longevity of the system. It was not until the early 18th century that
attitudes began to change.
III. Early Influences on Abolitionism
Black resistance to enslavement, Christian humanitarianism, economic
change, and intellectual developments all contributed to the rise of
abolitionist movements in European countriesmost notably Great
Britainand in the colonial Americas. Black resistance was the most
important of these factors. Since the 1500s Africans and persons of African
descent had attempted to free themselves from slavery by force. Revolts
were most common in the West Indies and Brazil, where the majority of the
population was black. But there were also uprisings in Mexico, Venezuela,
and the British colonies in North America.
Until the end of the 18th century, rebellious slaves did not really challenge
the institution of slavery itself. Instead, they simply sought to free
themselves from it. While this rebellion occasionally took the form of slave
revolts or uprisings, more frequently slaves tried to free themselves by
escape. Sometimes, especially in the West Indies and Latin America,
escaped slaves formed maroon communities. These settlements were
located in inaccessible areas, to prevent recapture by the authorities, and
were usually heavily fortified. Maroon communities, many of which endured
for years or decades, became havens for escaped slaves and bases for
attacks on plantations and passersby. In a way, these communities
encouraged antislavery sentiment among whites: The inability of local
authorities to recapture escaped slaves and the periodic violent raids by
members of maroon communities made some whites disturbingly aware of
their vulnerability in a slave society. In addition, whites became more aware
of the inherent cruelty of slavery because slaves were willing to risk severe
punishment and even death to escape from their masters or to rise up
against them. If slaves had submitted meekly to their masters, slavery
would not have been perceived to be oppressive and sinful.
B. The Quakers
The first whites to denounce slavery in Europe and the European colonies
were members of the Society of Friendscommonly known as Quakers.
Unlike the prevailing idea of the time that blacks were inferior to whites,
Quakers believed that all people, regardless of race, had a divine spark
inside them and were equal in the eyes of God. These beliefs led them in
the mid-18th century to take steps against slavery in Great Britain and the
British colonies in North America. The first goal of the Quaker abolitionists
was to end slave trading among fellow Quakers because the barbarity of the
buying and selling of slaves was more obvious than that of the institution of
slavery as a whole. It was also generally assumed that if the slave trade was
abolished slavery itself would soon cease to exist. After slave trading among
Friends had been stopped, during the 1760s Quaker congregations began
expelling slaveholders. Under the influence of Quakers in the American
colonies, British Quakers established Britain's first antislavery society, the
London Committee to Abolish the Slave Trade, in 1783.
C. Revolutionary Ideas
In the late 18th century an age of revolution began to bring ideas about
equal rights to the forefront, ideas that became a powerful force against
slavery in the Atlantic world. In the past, servitude and slavery had been
taken for granted as part of a class system where the rich dominated the
poor and those of the lower classes were prevented from social
advancement. But the Industrial Revolution, which brought increased
economic opportunity and power to the lower and middle classes, began to
undermine this system. Also, an 18th-century European intellectual
movement known as the Age of Enlightenment asserted that all human
beings had natural rights. The American Revolution (1775-1783) and the
French Revolution (1789-1799), widely seen as revolutions by citizens
against oppressive rulers, transformed this Enlightenment assertion into a
call for universal liberty and freedom.
The successful slave revolt that began in the French colony of
Saint-Domingue in 1791 was part of this revolutionary age. Led by François
Dominique Toussaint-L'Ouverture, black rebels overthrew the colonial
government, ended slavery in the colony, and in 1804 established the
republic of Haiti, the first independent black republic in the world (see
Haitian Slave Revolt). The revolt frightened slaveholders everywhere,
inspired other slaves and free blacks to action, and convinced religiously
motivated whites that only peaceful emancipation could prevent more
IV. Abolitionism in Europe and the European Colonies
A. Eighteenth Century
In Europe, Great Britain had the strongest abolitionist movement. The major
turning point in its development came in 1787 when Evangelical Christians
(see Evangelicalism) joined Quakers in establishing the Society for the
Abolition of the Slave Trade. Led by William Wilberforce, an Evangelical
member of the British Parliament, and Thomas Clarkson, a Quaker skilled in
mass organization, the society initiated petition drives, mass propaganda
efforts, and lobbying in an attempt to end British involvement in slave
trafficking. Although opposed by English merchants, West Indian planters,
and King George IIIwho equated abolitionism with political radicalismthe
society nevertheless managed to achieve its goal. In 1807 the British
Parliament abolished the slave trade and the British, through diplomacy and
the creation of a naval squadron to patrol the West African coast, began
forcing other European nations to give up the trade as well.
Abolitionism fared less well in continental Europe in the 18th century.
Antislavery societies in continental Europe were narrow, ineffective, elitist
organizations. In France, Jacques Pierre Brissot, a supporter of the French
Revolution, established the Société des Amis des Noirs (Society of the
Friends of Blacks) in 1788, but this group failed in its effort against the slave
trade. Despite its complete lack of success, the French antislavery effort was
the strongest in continental Europe.
B. Nineteenth Century
During the 19th century British abolitionism became more radical.
Wilberforce, Clarkson, and their associates had assumed that ending the
slave trade would lead directly to general emancipation (freeing of all slaves).
When it became clear that this would not happen, Clarkson joined with
Thomas Fowell Buxton in 1823 to form the British Anti-Slavery Society, which
at first advocated a gradual abolition of slavery. However, when West Indian
planters refused to make concessions, the abolitionists hardened their
stance, and by the late 1820s abolitionists were demanding immediate slave
emancipation. The great pressure they exerted, combined with continuing
slave unrest, led Parliament to pass the Emancipation Act in 1833. This
enacted gradual, compensated emancipation, which meant that slaves were
freed but were forced to work for their former masters for a period to
compensate them for monetary loss. By 1838 all slaves in the British Empire
were free. Thereafter, British abolitionism fragmented into efforts against the
illegal slave trade, slavery in Africa, and slavery in the United States.
During the 19th century abolitionist societies in other European countries
were far less significant than abolitionist societies in Britain. British
abolitionists influenced The Netherlands and especially France, where they
inspired the creation of Société Française pour l'Abolition de l'Esclavage (French
Society for the Abolition of Slavery) in 1834. This tiny organization had some
success in lobbying the French government. However, it was the overthrow of
the French monarchy and the establishment of a republic in February 1848,
followed three months later by a major slave revolt in the French colony of
Martinique in the Caribbean, that led to the emancipation of all slaves within
the French empire in 1848.
In a similar manner, a domestic revolution and colonial unrest led Spain to
abolish slavery in its colonies of Puerto Rico and Cuba, in 1873 and 1886
respectively. Earlier, negotiations between government officials and planters
had produced emancipation in the Swedish (1847), Danish (1848), and Dutch
(1863) colonies in the West Indies.
V. Abolitionism in the United States: Early Movements
Abolitionism in the British colonies in North America developed within the
broader Atlantic antislavery movement. But, unlike the case in Europe,
slavery was a domestic institution in the United States and was primarily
under local (state) control. In addition, slaveholders often dominated the
country's national government.
As elsewhere, black slaves in colonial America encouraged abolitionism by
seeking to free themselves. Although maroon settlements like those in the
Caribbean existed in colonial America, they were much smaller and less
widespread. Slave rebellions, however, were frequent. A major uprising took
place in New York City in 1712, when black and Native American slaves killed
nine whites and wounded seven more. In 1739 a much larger rebellion took
place near Charleston, South Carolina. About one hundred slaves marched
along the Stono River, destroying plantations and killing a few whites.
Slaveholders with the aid of Native Americans put down the rebellion, killing
44 of the rebels.
American Quakers, like their British counterparts, responded to these
uprisings by advocating gradual abolition. By the 1740s Quaker abolitionists
John Woolman and Anthony Benezet were urging other Quakers to cease
their involvement in the slave trade and to break all connections with slavery.
It was not until the American Revolution began in 1775, however, that
abolitionism spread beyond the Society of Friends.
A. Revolutionary Abolitionism
The American Revolution invigorated the abolitionist movement. It became
difficult for white Americans, who had fought for independence from Britain in
the name of liberty and universal natural rights, to justify the continuation of
slavery. These ideas, black service in American armies during the revolution,
black abolitionist petitions for emancipation, and the actions of white
antislavery societies, motivated all of the Northern states by 1804 either to
end slavery within their borders or to provide for its gradual abolition. In
1787 Congress had banned slavery in the Northwest Territory (a region
comprising the present states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin,
and the eastern part of Minnesota, ceded to the United States by the British
after the American Revolution). Also, during the 1780s and 1790s large
numbers of slaveholders in the Southern states of Maryland and Virginia
freed their slaves.
Despite these early successes, by the mid-1780s the revolutionary
abolitionist movement was in decline. Beyond the freeing of slaves in
Maryland and Virginia, the movement had a negative impact on the South,
where the large majority of American slaves lived. The Haitian Slave Revolt in
1791 and an aborted revolt conspiracy led by the slave Gabriel in Virginia in
1800 convinced Southern whiteswho feared they could not control free
blacksthat the slave system had to be strengthened rather than abolished.
Meanwhile, the growth of the cotton industry, fueled by the invention of the
cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793, made slavery a vital part of both the
Southern and the national economies. At the same time, the development of
scientific racism, the idea that blacks were biologically inferior to whites and
were intellectually and morally incapable of self-government, encouraged
state and national legislation that limited the rights of free blacks.
B. The Colonization Movement
This deteriorating situation made schemes to colonize black Americans in
Africa, Haiti, and other locations beyond the borders of the United States
attractive to whites andin the beginning at leastto substantial numbers of
blacks. Massachusetts Quaker Paul Cuffe became the most prominent black
advocate of migration to West Africa. Despite early enthusiasm, by the
1810s most African Americans questioned the justice of mass expatriation,
coming to the conclusion that it was less a movement to emancipate slaves
than an attempt to rid America of its free blacks.
In contrast, white abolitionists during these years supported the program of
the American Colonization Society (ACS), a group established in 1816 in
Washington, D.C., by such prominent slaveholders as Henry Clay and Francis
Scott Key. This organization proposed to abolish slavery gradually in the
United States and relieve white fear of free blacks by transporting
emancipated slaves to West Africa and giving them their own country. Five
years after its founding, the ACS purchased land for a colony in West Africa
and began transporting African Americans there. Named Liberia, the colony
would eventually become the destination for more than 12,000 African
Americans. Faced with increasing black opposition and the insurmountable
logistical difficulties involved in transporting an exponentially rising American
slave population to Africa, the ACS had no chance for success. As these
shortcomings became clear during the late 1820s, Northern abolitionists
formed a more radical movement.
VI. Abolitionism in the United States: Later Movements
Two factors account for the radicalization of American abolitionism during the
late 1820s and early 1830s. First, the growing agitation of black abolitionists
and signs of black unrest in the South inspired urgency among white
abolitionists, who feared that maintaining slavery would lead to more
violence. In 1822 free black Denmark Vesey unsuccessfully conspired to lead
a massive slave revolt in Charleston, South Carolina; in 1829 David Walker
of Boston published his inflammatory Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the
World; and in 1831 Nat Turner launched a short-lived but bloody slave
uprising in Virginia.
Second, a wave of evangelical revivalism called the Second Great Awakening
inspired a reform spirit in the North. The revivalists argued that America was
in need of moral regeneration by dedicated Christians. They channeled their
fervor into a series of reforms designed to eliminate evils in American
society. These reforms included women's rights, temperance, educational
improvements, humane treatment for the mentally ill, and the abolition of
slavery. Although not all revivalists were abolitionists, during the mid-19th
century the abolitionist movement acquired a new urgency and energy
because of their support.
These two developments influenced the extraordinary career of William Lloyd
Garrison, a white New Englander who became the leading American
abolitionist. Garrison began publishing a weekly abolitionist newspaper called
The Liberator in 1831. In 1833 Garrison, convinced that slavery was a sin
and hoping to avoid more violence, brought together Quaker abolitionists,
evangelical abolitionists, and his New England associates to form the
American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS). It aimed at immediate,
uncompensated emancipation and equal rights for blacks. Among early
leaders of the AASS were white abolitionists such as Arthur and Lewis Tappan,
Lucretia Coffin Mott, Theodore Weld, and Lydia Maria Child, and black
abolitionists such as James Forten and Robert Purvis.
Although the so-called immediate abolitionists were never more than a tiny
minority of Americans, the AASS spread rapidly across the North. By 1838 the
society claimed 1,350 affiliates and 250,000 members. It employed
speakers, sent petitions to the U.S. Congress, and mailed abolitionist
propaganda into the South. These efforts produced a fierce reaction. North
and South, angry white mobs opposed changes in race relations. Southern
postmasters refused to deliver antislavery literature, and in 1835 President
Andrew Jackson unsuccessfully petitioned Congress to ban the mailing of
abolitionist pamphlets. The following year, the House of Representatives
passed the gag rule (see Gag Rules), which banned the introduction of
abolitionist petitions in that body. In 1837 abolitionist newspaper publisher
Elijah P. Lovejoy was killed in Illinois while trying to protect his printing press
from a mob.
By the late 1830s, the AASS also faced internal division. Fierce resistance to
abolitionism convinced Garrison and his associates that the entire
nationnot just the Southhad to be cleansed of oppression. In addition to
their abolitionist activities, so-called Garrisonians became advocates of
women's rights, denounced organized religion as proslavery, and condemned
all governments for their use of force. It was sinful, Garrisonians contended,
to vote or to hold office. Other abolitionists had a more traditional view of
women, hoped to get the churches to join the abolitionist cause, sought to
engage in politics, and were not entirely opposed to using violent means.
The result was the fracturing of the AASS. While the Garrisonians retained
control of a much-reduced version of that organization, two new groups
emerged. In 1840 Lewis Tappan led evangelical abolitionists of both races in
forming the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society to foster abolitionism
in the nation's churches. The same year, other non-Garrisonians formed the
Liberty Party to nominate abolitionist candidates for public office.
The Liberty abolitionists were themselves divided into two factions. The
radical political abolitionists of western New York, under the leadership of
Gerrit Smith, declared slavery to be illegal everywhere and urged Northerners
to go to the South to help slaves escape. A more numerous Liberty group,
centered in Cincinnati, rejected these provocative tactics. It contended that
Northerners must concentrate on ending slavery where Congress had
jurisdictionin the territories and the District of Columbiawhile encouraging
the formation of abolitionist political parties in the Southern states.
A. The Underground Railroad
It was the radical political abolitionists who were most attractive to prominent
black leaders, including former slaves Henry Highland Garnet andby 1851
Frederick Douglass. Garnet and Douglass worked closely with the radicals,
especially in their support for the Underground Railroadthe collective name
for a variety of regional semisecret networks that helped slaves escape into
the North and Canada. Many other blacks and whites joined in such work,
among the more famous were Charles T. Torrey, a white Northerner who
helped slaves escape from Virginia and Maryland; John Rankin of Ohio, a
white man who sheltered slaves escaping from Kentucky; and Harriet
Tubman, a former slave who led bands of escapees northward from
The Underground Railroad probably aided around 1,000 slaves per year in
escaping. Its success helped raise awareness in the North about slavery and
pushed supporters of slavery into defensive measures that contributed to
worsening relations between North and South. One of these measures was
the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, which made it a crime to help slaves escape
and made it easier for masters to reclaim escapees.
B. Territorial Disputes
The annexation to the United States of the slaveholding state of Texas in
1845 and of the Mexican provinces of California and New Mexico in 1848 led
to an irrevocable division between North and South. The question of the
extension of slavery into new territories, not abolition itself, became the
most prominent issue and in 1848 led most Liberty abolitionists to merge
into the larger Free-Soil Party, which opposed the extension. In 1854 the
opening of Kansas Territory to slavery led to the formation of the even larger
Republican Party as the defender of Northern antislavery interests.
Although overshadowed by political developments, abolitionists remained
active. In 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe, the daughter of a Connecticut
clergyman, published Uncle Tom's Cabin, a forceful indictment of slavery.
The book quickly became one of the most popular works of the time, and it
was important in spreading antislavery sentiment in the North. At the same
time, black and white abolitionists violently resisted enforcement of the
Fugitive Slave Law. When fighting broke out between proslavery and
antislavery forces in Kansas, abolitionists helped arm the latter group. Most
of them became convinced that slavery could not be abolished peacefully.
Acting on this belief, white abolitionist John Brown led a tiny biracial band in a
raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in October 1859, hoping
to spark a slave rebellion. Although Virginia militia and United States troops
easily thwarted his plan, Brown's actions and his subsequent trial and
execution aroused great sympathy in the North. Along with the victory of
Republican presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln in 1860, Brown's raid and
the Northern reaction to it convinced Southern whites that their proslavery
interests were no longer secure within the United States.
C. The Civil War and Emancipation
During the months following Lincoln's election, most of the slaveholding
states seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of
America. As the American Civil War began in April 1861, President Lincoln
aimed only to return those states to the Union. From the start of the war,
however, abolitionists pressured him not only to make abolition an objective
of the war but to enlist black troops as well. Military necessity had the most
influence on Lincoln's actions, but abolitionist efforts contributed to his
Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863, which declared the freedom of
slaves within the bounds of the Confederacy.
Meanwhile, Southern slaves used the war as an opportunity to leave their
masters in large numbers. Over 180,000 black menmost of them former
slavesserved in the Union Army, which had conquered the South by the
spring of 1865. The Northern victory and continuing abolitionist agitation led
in December 1865 to the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the
Constitution of the United States, which banned involuntary servitude
throughout the country. With that achievement, the American abolitionist
movement disintegrated, allowing white southerners to replace slavery with a
caste system that persisted for decades. Although technically free, the great
majority of black southerners remained impoverished agricultural workers
well into the 20th century. They faced systematic segregation, inadequate
schools, political disenfranchisement, and lynching.
VII. Abolitionism in Latin America
In addition to the Caribbean island colonies of European nations and the
United States, slavery existed throughout Latin America. Local circumstances
varied widely in this vast region. Except in Brazil, formal abolitionist
movements played a minor role in the emancipation of blacks. Instead, a
variety of circumstances gradually pushed slavery toward extinction.
A. The Former Spanish Colonies
There were 1.5 million slaves in Brazila former Portuguese colonyin 1870,
but otherwise slave populations in independent Latin American countries
never approached the numbers of those in Caribbean colonies or in the
United States. There were only 3,000 people to be freed in Mexico in 1823
when that country abolished slavery and only 13,000 in Venezuela when it
abolished the institution in 1854. These small numbers reflected a gradual
decline in the profitability of slave labor and a corresponding decline in the
political influence of slaveholders. This decline was a result of changing
economic ideas, as well as the introduction of cheap labor in the form of
contract workers from China. All of these circumstances contrasted with those
in the United States and the Caribbean colonies.
Several other factors contributed to the decline of slavery in Latin America. As
elsewhere, black resistance to enslavement played an important role.
Escape, maroon settlements, and rebellion all weakened Latin American
slavery. Unlike in the United States, the slave population in Latin America
had never sustained itself through natural reproduction, so the abolition of
the Atlantic slave trade struck a telling blow. Other important factors were the
new ideas of equality arising from the Age of Enlightenment and the
revolutions of the late 18th century. During the early 19th century, such
revolutionaries as Simón Bolívar fought for independence from Spain for the
region's Spanish colonies and endorsed universal freedom. The independent
governments they created either weakened slavery or abolished it entirely.
Chile and Mexico in 1823 and the United Provinces of Central America in
1824 abolished slavery as a direct result of their independence movements.
Economic and political forces led Uruguay in 1842, Bolivia and Colombia in
1851, Ecuador in 1852, Argentina in 1853, and Peru and Venezuela in 1854
to terminate the institution. When Brazilian troops invaded and occupied
Paraguay in the 1860s at the end of the War of the Triple Alliance, the
government they established abolished slavery. Since by then the United
States had also abolished slavery, this left Brazil as the only independent
slaveholding nation in the western hemisphere.
Although it started at a later date, the Brazilian struggle for abolition had
more in common with the British and American movements than with the
movements in other Latin American countries. In Brazil politically powerful
sugar and coffee planters staunchly defended slave labor, while abolitionists
established organizations to achieve their goals. It was emancipation in the
United States that inspired a determined Brazilian antislavery movement. In
1868 Joaquim Nabuco, Rui Barbosa, and former slave Luis Gama led an
effort that prodded the Brazilian government to undertake gradual abolition.
In 1871 legislation was passed that called for freeing the children of slaves.
However, the process began to stall in the late 1870s, leading Nabuco to
organize the Sociedade Brasileira contra a Escravidão (Brazilian Anti-Slavery
Society) in 1880, which secured the emancipation of elderly slaves after
1885. The society grew into an increasingly radical movement, and by 1888
unrest on plantations and the refusal of the army to step in to halt the flight
of slaves from their masters brought the slave system to the brink of chaos.
This resulted in the total abolition of slavery in Brazil later that year.
VIII. Significance and Legacy
With emancipation in Brazil, legal slavery disappeared from the western
hemisphere, although it lingered in Africa into the 20th century. The abolition
of slavery also did not end comparable systems of labor exploitation, such
as contract labor, sharecropping, child labor, and sweatshops. Nor did
abolitionism succeed in ending racism or in establishing equal political and
social rights for people of African descent in the Americas.
Nevertheless, in the United States, the various European empires, and the
independent states of Latin America, abolitionism destroyed human bondage
as an acceptable institution. It established equal rights principles that have
outlasted post-emancipation efforts by former slaveholders to create caste
systems, and provided a basis for more recent efforts countering racial
segregation and supporting racial justice.
Stanley Harrold, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of History, South Carolina State University. Author of The Abolitionists and
the South, 1831-1861, Gamaliel Bailey and Antislavery Union, and other books.
See an outline for this article.
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